Looping through arrays in bash with a thorough syntax explanation of each part

A for loop is a relatively simple concept, but I wanted to break down the syntax here because under the hood, bash is very much, and I cannot exmphasize this enough, not C. I do try to see what’s happening under the hood though so that when I copy paste from StackOverflow and it doesn’t work, I can actually troubleshoot.

You can loop through arrays in bash like this

array=(thing1 thing2)